What Is Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)? Types, Symptoms & Causes

Expert in global health, crafting insightful content at The Cropsite.

What Is Sickle Cell Disease Types, Symptoms & Causes

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a heritage disorder that affects the shape of blood cells and causes various health issues in the human body. This problem usually blocks the blood vessels and prevents oxygen supply to various parts of the organ. Unfortunately, there is no cure for sickle cell disease, and the treatment can only promote relief from pain.

In such cases, it is crucial to avoid such cases, which can be done by following a quality lifestyle. To do so, you need to understand its type and symptoms to identify the problem and even the causes that you need to prevent for a healthy blood flow.

What Are The Types Of Sickle Cell Anemia?

Sickle Cell Disease Types

1. Hemoglobin SC

Hemoglobin SC disease is a type of sickle cell disease that results from inheriting one Hb C gene from one parent and one Hb S gene from the other parent. In this case, the individual has a combination of hemoglobin S (Hb S) and hemoglobin C (Hb C). The presence of both abnormal hemoglobin variants leads to the production of Hb SC.

2. Hemoglobin SS

The most prevalent type of sickle cell disease is Hemoglobin SS disease. It happens when both your parents give you copies of the hemoglobin S gene, which results in Hemoglobins SS. Besides, those who have the most severe form of SCD also tend to be more likely to experience the worst symptoms.

3. Hemoglobin Beta Thalassemia

This type of SCD is a condition that occurs when a person inherits both the Hb S gene (for sickle hemoglobin) and mutations in the beta-globin gene from one or both parents. Also, beta-thalassemia affects the production of beta-globin, a component of hemoglobin. Besides, if a person inherits the Hb S gene from one parent and has beta-thalassemia from the other parent, it would be a compound heterozygous condition (Hb S/beta-thalassemia) 

4. Hemoglobin SB 0 (Beta-Zero) Thalassemia

Sickle beta-zero thalassemia is a type of sickle cell disease that results from the inheritance of a sickle hemoglobin gene (Hb S) from one parent and a bete zero thalassemia gene from the other parent. Moreover, in beta-zero thalassemia, there is a mutation in the beta-globin gene that leads to the complete absence of beta-globin, and thus, it makes the condition severe.

Symptoms of Sickle Anemia

  • A Series Of Pain Can Occur

One of the major symptoms of sickle cell disease is a series of extreme pain, which is called pain crises. Sickle-shaped cells block the blood vessels, disturbing the smooth flow of blood to some crucial parts of your body, such as joints, abdomen, and chest.

  • Swelling Of Hands And Feet, Which Can Be Painful

Another most often observed symptom of sickle cell anemia is swelling of hands and feet, which are painful for the person suffering from the disease. The pain is caused because the sickle-shaped cells disrupt the blood flow and circulation to your feet and hands.

  • Can Increase The Chances Of Infections

The sickle cell disease can harm the spleen, which is a part of the lymphatic system. This increases the chances of infection. To protect infants and children from infections due to damage to the spleen by sickle cells, they are given antibiotics and vaccination at an early age.

  • Making Eyesight Poor

Sickles can plug the tiny blood vessels that supply blood to the eyes; hence, this can cause harm to the retina, which is responsible for processing visual images. Thus, sickle cell disease can cause vision problems.

Reasons That Cause Sickle Anemia

Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder in which the red blood cells mutate into a sickle shape. Thus, it can only happen when a person inherits a sickle cell gene from both of the biological parents. Moreover, for a child to be affected, both parents must carry one copy of the sickle cell gene and pass both copies of the altered form to the child. In case the child inherits the sickle cell gene from only one parent, the child will have sickle cell trait with one normal hemoglobin gene and one altered form of the gene.

In Closing

When a person faces the problem of SCD, these cells turn into a sickle-like shape that generally resembles a crescent-like shape. Due to this shape, they become rigid and sticky, which potentially slows down the blood flow. Hence, by understanding sickle cell disease types, symptoms, and causes, one can become aware and ensure good health.

William John, the chief editor of The Cropsite, is a man with expertise in general medicine who is enthusiastic about helping people from all corners of the world through his content writing. William John covers all the things related to general medicine and is a person who can be described as a walking encyclopedia of general health. His years of knowledge of general medicine have made him a proficient person who is skilled in understanding all aspects of a person’s physical health. With this decade of experience in general medicine, William John greatly contributes to creating content such as articles and product reviews that each reader of The CropSite can depend on for being authentic and backed by research.

Learn More

Leave a Comment