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USDA GAIN: Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugar, Grain and Feed

08 April 2013

USDA GAIN: Russian Federation Grain and Feed Annual 2013USDA GAIN: Russian Federation Grain and Feed Annual 2013

For 2013, FAS/ Moscow’s initial crop forecast is for a recovery from the drought - impacted 2012 crop, with total grain production expected up 15 MMT (21 percent) to 86 MMT. This forecast includes 50 MMT of wheat, 16 MMT of barley, 7 MMT of corn, and 13 MMT of other grains, such as rye, oats, rice (rough), millet, triticale, buckwheat, sorghum, and pulses. Given attractive world grain prices, these grain volumes are exp ected to allow Russia to export approximately 20 MMT of grain, including 15 MMT of wheat, 3 MMT of barley, 1 MMT of corn, and approximately 1 MMT of other grains and pulses.
USDA GAIN Report - Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugar, Grain and Feed


Rice, Milled


FAS/Moscow fo recasts Russia’s total grain production at 86 million metric tons (MMT). If realized, this production would be 15 MMT more than in 2012 (up 21 percent) when the wheat crop was severely affected by abnormal spring temperature fluctuations in European Russi a, and summer dryness in spring wheat producing areas. The forecast includes 50 MMT of wheat, 16 MMT of barley, 7 MMT of corn, 3 MMT of rye, 4.5 MMT of oats, 1.1 MMT of rice (rough) and 4 MMT of other grains and pulses. The forecast is based on yield trend s, plantings and estimated harvesting area, and assumptions of average weather conditions for the rest of the growing season. Forecasts are very preliminary as spring sowing will only begin in April and May and weather fluctuations can be very pronounced from year to year in Russia.

The Russian Ministry of Agriculture has not yet forecast grain production, but has set 95 MMT as a production target for Russian farmers in 2013, which the Ministry says would allow Russia to meet domestic demand in grain and to continue exports. The Ministry of Agriculture plans to do the first forecast after updating the status of winter grain, possibly in the beginning of April 2013. Forecasts of industry analysts vary from 84 MMT to 97 MMT.

Sown Area and Yields

According to the Ministry of Agriculture, winter grains in the fall of 2012 were sown on 15.85 million hectares down 3 percent from 2011 (in 2011 area sown was 16.3 million, and in 2010 – 16.1 million hectares). This total includes 5.3 million hectares in the Sout hern Federal District and 2.2 million hectares in the North Caucasus Federal District. As of March 20 th , 2013, 13.9 million hectares are in good and satisfactory condition (88 percent of winter sown area), and 1.9 million hectares, or 12 percent of sown ar ea, are in unsatisfactory condition (thinned out or not - emerged). In the Southern Federal District 4.4 million hectares (83 of sown area) are in good and satisfactory condition, and in the North Caucasus Federal District 1.9 million hectares (86 percent of sown area) are in good and satisfactory condition. These conditions are significantly above last year at this time.

In the Southern and North Caucasus Federal District farmers have started soil dressing and commenced spring sowing in the second decade o f March, since the weather has been warm and favorable. Meanwhile, in the Volga Valley and some parts of Central federal districts many fields are still covered with snow, which makes it not possible to assess crop conditions.

The Russian Grain Union vie ws the status of winter grains as even more optimistic than the Ministry of Agriculture. According to the Russian Grain Union, as of the beginning of March, winter grains on 14 million hectares were in good and satisfactory condition, and only 1.8 million hectares were in unsatisfactory condition, and possibly will be re-sown in spring. In the beginning of January conditions were worse, but the situation in January and February improved, and 0.4 million hectares in the Volga Valley and in the Southern Europ ean Russia were moved from unsatisfactory to satisfactory condition. The Russian Grain Union reported that, if financial and inputs supply is adequate, then Russian farmers may plant 31 million hectares with spring grains and re-sow winter kill are on 1.8 - 1.9 million hectares to make the total spring grain planted area of 33 million hectares.

Russian farmers begin spring grain sowing in the very end of March and in April, with corn sowing continuing through May. To date there is no information on farmers’ plans for spring sowing. Farmers’ decisions this year will depend on price expectations and on financing, including financial support from the federal and provincial budgets that, so far, have been significantly lower than in the previous years.

The Russian Ministry of Agriculture did not forecast spring grain area, but has reported on its plan for spring planted area (all crops), which is 53 million hectares (including the re - sown winter kill of approximately 2 million hectares). The Ministry plan includes increased area sown with corn by 5 percent, pulses by 2 percent, soybeans by 4 percent, and fodder crops by 15 percent. However, the Ministry of Agriculture does not have the ability to enforce production plans or strategy, thus it is unclear if farmers will follow these recommendations.


Russia’s Agricultural Minister estimated overall farmers’ financial “needs” for spring field works at 264 billion rubles ($8.5 billion). However, to date it is still unclear where farmers will get this mon ey. There are no publicly available data on the present financial status of grain farmers, and estimates of their limited finances for the current season are based on the following considerations:

  • While grain farmers’ incomes increased in 2012 due to high grain prices, most farmers sold grain in the fall of 2012, long before grain prices reached their maximum;
  • Prices of inputs, such as machines, fertilizer, seeds, and fuel increased in the fall 2012  and continue increasing in 2013;
  • Farmers’ indebtedness has been increasing since 2010 (the year of severe drought) and through marketing year 2011 when a large crop pushed grain prices down. In 2012 grain prices began increasing only in July, and many banks refused to issue new loans to farmers and to re - structur e outstanding debts. Interest rates remain very high (10 - 14 percent);
  • There is a very limited practice, and no regulatory mechanisms, to use future crops as collateral for operating loans.
  • The federal financing of agriculture in 2013 decreased and the models of financing have changed in accordance with Russia’s WTO commitments. Changes in the methods of support have led to delays in the actual allocation of these (decreased) budget funds to provinces and then to agricultural producers.

The 2013 federal budg et allocation for support of crop producers, processors and for marketing of crops through the Ministry of Agriculture will total 46 billion rubles ($1.48 billion). The major portion of federal money will be spent for partial compensation of interest rates in crop production, processing and marketing loans (16 billion rubles or $516 million); and the decoupled support payments to crop producers per 1 hectare of sown area (15.2 billion rubles or $490 million). The decoupled support replaces all previous fede ral government price supports for fuel, fertilizer, agricultural chemicals and planting seeds for agricultural producers. Industry analysts estimate that this decoupled support of approximately 200 rubles ($6.45) per hectare, will be just 1/3 as much as pr evious support. Moreover, according to industry analysts and farmer sources, to date farmers have not yet received any 2013 per - hectare subsidies.

  • As for subsidies for interest rate compensation, the federal government approved the distribution of the fi rst portion of federal subsidies for the operating loans in crop production, processing and marketing only on March 12, 2013 ( ) and it will take time to become operational. Only a small share of the interest rate subsidies is for operating loans for crop production, processing and marketing will go to crop producers, while the larger portion is directed to processors or for the re - financing of general debt s of big holding companies. For example, according to the scheme of distribution of interest rate subsidies for operating loans for crop production, processing and marketing, more than 20 percent of distributed federal funds for these purposes are expected go to Belgorod province, despite the fact that this province’s share of total Russian crop production is less than 3 percent. This is because Belgorod is the location of large holding companies involved in meat production. More information on the agric ultural programs and budget financing of agriculture can be found in the following FAS/Moscow GAIN Reports:

    - Federal Agricultural Budget in 2013_3 - 13 - 2013;
    - GOR Resolution s on Distribution of Agricultural Subsidies_1 - 25 - 2013 , and
    - Agriculture Development Program 20 13 - 2020_11 - 6 - 2012.

All federal programs are linked to the provincial programs, and financing begins only if and when the relevant provincial program is adopted. Information on these provincial programs is very limited. But given budget constraints of many provinces, it is unlikely that they will significantly increase support of their farmers.

The government has discussed additional financial support of farmers in view of the tight grain market (FAS/Moscow report: Russian Government Discusses Grain Situation_2 - 12 - 2013) but industry analysts do not expect any additional money before May–June 2013.

Input Supplies


In 2013, the Russian government has stopped the fuel price support mechanism for farmers (which had been given for the past 3 years). Fuel prices are increasing and the price of gasoline (automobile fuel) increased from July 1 st , 2012 through March 1 st , 2013 by 8 - 13 percent depending on the quality of gas. Farmers’ procurement prices of diesel fuel increased by 17 percent. It is unlikely that large grain producers will decrease consumption of fuel, since tractors, seeders and other spring cultivation and sowing equipment use is the most crucial part of their field work. However, the increase in fuel prices and farmers’ expenses on fuel will increase the cost of production of grain crops in 2013 and this may impact small farmer planting decisions.

Mineral fertilizer

Despite discontinuation of the federal price support mechanism of fertilizer prices for farmers, the supply of mineral fertilizer for soil dressing and sowing in spring 2013 may be as high as last year due to previ ously accumulated stocks of fertilizer at subsidized prices. According to the Russian Ministry of Agriculture, as of March 12, 2013, stocks of mineral fertilizer at farms (agricultural producers) were 820,800 metric tons (in active ingredients), which is 1 01,500 MT more than on the same date last year. These stocks were primarily accumulated by farmers in the fall of 2012, prior to discontinuation of the federal government fertilizer subsidies. Purchases in January and February 2013 of fertilizer were down from the previous years. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, the average price of the most popular fertilizer (including VAT, packaging, transportation and delivery to farms) in 2013 increased compared to 2012 as following:

  • ammonia nitrate by +18 percent to 11,990 rubles ($387) per MT;
  • carbamide by +5 percent to 14,851 ($479) rubles per MT;
  • potassium chloride by +15 percent to 10,133 rubles ($327) per MT;
  • azophoska (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium compound fertilizer) by +6 percent to  6,892 rubles ($545) per MT; and
  • ammophos price remained the same – 22,177 rubles ($715) per MT1.

Large scale grain producers which benefited the most from high grain prices in 2012 have likely
purchased sufficient fertilizer for 2013 despite the higher prices. Givenm normal weather, crop yields at their farms may significantly increase from last year. Meanwhile, the price of fertilizer remains less affordable for small farms, and they will have more incentives to switch from grain to other crops, including oilseeds.

The government has again tried to use administrative resources to encourage private fertilizer
companies to provide fertilizer to farmers at beneficial prices. The Ministry of Agriculture initiated an agreement between the Russian Association of Fertilizer producers and the Agro-Industrial Union of Russia “On Interaction”, in accordance with which the Association promised to publish on its web-site all information on the fertilizer trade, and declare (monthly) the maximum possible plant-gate fertilizer prices (without VAT and packages and delivery expenses).

1Source: Ministry of Agriculture:

Planting Seeds

According to the Ministry of Agriculture, as of March 19, 2013, the estimated need in planting seeds of grain and pulses (except corn) is 6,024,100 MT, of which 5,881,360 MT or 97.6 percent of needs are already available to farmers, and 83 percent of these available seeds are certified seeds. The Southern Federal District that has started spring sowing already has all necessary seeds, and 98 percent of these seeds are certified seeds. Meanwhile, many grain producers in other federal districts still use so called “saved” seeds for planting which do not have traits for increasing yields.

The seed quality continues to improve for corn, and this has already resulted in increased yields of corn in the last two years. Most of these seeds are hybrids of domestic varieties, but imports of planting seeds of corn have also been increasing, with Romania and Hungary being the largest suppliers. Estimated demand (“need”) in planting seeds for corn is 79,900 MT, and availability by the end of March 2013, is 44,450 MT, or 55.6 percent of needs. Roughly 99.4 percent of available corn planting seeds are certified seeds.


The agricultural machinery’ market, according to the Russian Association of Agricultural Machinery Producers (Rosagromash), increased in 2012 by 14.8 percent in sales volume compared with 2011 and reached 124.8 billion rubles, with 75 percent being imported machines (93.2 billion rubles, up 23 percent year on year) and sales of domestic machines being 25 percent of the total (33.8 billion rubles, down by 6.1 percent year to year). Domestic production of agricultural machines decreased in 2012 by 7.7 percent to 33.6 billion rubles, including production of grain harvesters, which decreased by 34.2 percent, cultivators – by 30.9 percent, seeders – by 17.3 percent. With grain farmers’ incomes increasing in the second half of 2012 as a result of high grain prices, larger farms, and well financed operations have renewed their purchasing of foreign machines, (assembled in Russia), despite increasing prices.

In 2013 the Russian government is subsidizing farmers’ purchases of agricultural machines of domestic origin. The federal budget allocated 2.3 billion rubles ($74 million) for this support in 2013. However, industry analysts report that this program has not begun to be operational yet.

Summary of 2008-2012 Production Changes

At the end of March 2013, Rosstat updated Russia’s 2012 production data upwards by 0.2 MMT from 70.7 MMT to 70.9 MMT due to revised corn and pulses crop. FAS/Moscow reported on Rosstat preliminary data in Grain and Feed Update_1-24-2013, and the major crops data remain unchanged.


FAS/Moscow forecast Russia’s total grain consumption in MY 2013/14 at 66.4 MMT, 4.7 MMT up from the total grain consumption estimate for MY 2012/13.

In 2012, Russian Rosstat began publishing what it calls grain balances. The data are summed for calendar year, and the distribution pattern separates seeds, concentrated feeds, losses, stocks and the summary of all processed grain (food, formula feeds, groats, and other industrial products. According to Rosstat’s grain balances, in CY 2012, the total grain supply (so called “resources”) was 130.9 MMT. The distribution of these resources was the following: domestic grain consumption was 65.4 MMT (in the last 10 years this figure has fluctuated from a low of 64.4 MMT in 2010 to a high of 72.1 MMT in 2009), losses – 1.0 MMT, and exports - 22.4 MMT. The end of year stocks were estimated at 42.1 MMT. The structure of distribution of grain resources in CY 2012 is in the Chart 2 below.

Source: Rosstat

Food/Seed/Industrial consumption

FAS/Moscow estimates food, seed and industrial consumption in MY 2013/14 is forecast to remain steady at 33 MMT, and this volume has been relatively stable in the last 10 years. Seed consumption (including saved seeds) has stabilized at 7-8 MMT, the rest has been processed into flour, cereals (“groats”), alcohol and other industrial products. Production of flour has been decreasing in recent years, as domestic demand of the bread and baking industry slowed down, and export markets for flour remain limited. The importance of industrial products, such as gluten and syrups has been increasing slowly, although there are no official data on production of these products.


FAS/Moscow estimates feed consumption in Russia in MY 2013/14 to increase by 4 MMT to 33 MMT as a result of higher production. Feed consumption last year was one of the lowest volumes in the last decade due to the smaller wheat crop.

There are no official data on use of grain in feeds by categories of consumers and by types of grain. Industry analysts estimate that poultry industry consumes 7-8 MMT of grain, mostly in the form of compound feeds, the pig industry consumes 10-12 MMT of grain both in way of concentrated feeds and compound feeds, and the rest is consumed by other livestock industries. Production and use of formula feeds has been increasing in Russia along with increased industrial production of poultry and pigs. By types of grain wheat still dominates in feeds, although increased production of corn in the last two years stimulated increase of use of corn in feeding.

The below average grain crop in 2012 increased feed prices and impacted profitability of poultry and livestock operations. Given increased prices, grain became unaffordable for some feed millers and livestock and poultry producers. Since many feed mills and livestock and poultry producers receive grain from farms located in their own federal districts, and damage to grain crop varied by districts, discrepancies in the supply of grain for feeds by districts increased. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, all Russian regions, except the Central Federal District, experienced a shortage of fodder grain for concentrated feeds and the lowest share of supply of fodder grain compared with local “needs” was in the Siberian Federal District (only 70 percent). In other federal districts the supply of fodder grain to needs varied from 80 to 90 percent.


Assuming the average grain crop of 86 MMT, FAS/Moscow forecasts Russia’s grain and pulses exports in MY 2013/14 at 20 MMT, including 15 MMT of wheat and wheat flour, 3 MMT of barley, 1 MMT of corn, and about 1.0 MMT of other grains and pulses. If realized, these total grain exports would be up 30 percent from 2012/13, where exports are estimated at 15.5 MMT, including 10.5 MMT of wheat, 2.3 MMT of barley, 2 MMT of corn, and 0.8 MMT of other grains and pulses. Wheat exports are expected to see the greatest increase in shipments in MY 2013/14. However, as a result of very low wheat carry-in stocks, it is expected that July 2013 exports (July is the first month of marketing year for wheat and barley, Russia’s major grain crops) will be far below the previous 3 years (where exports averaged 2 MMT in July), and exports will only pick up once the new crop begins to be marketed and shipped.

As of end of February, Russian Ministry of Agriculture estimated grain exports in MY 2012/13 at 14.8 MMT, although this estimate does not include pulses. In July 2012 – through February 2013 Russia exported 10,192,000 MT of wheat, 93,000 MT of wheat flour in grain equivalent, 1,940,000 MT of barley, 4,000 MT of malt (in barley equivalent), 1,300,000 MT of corn, 219,000 MT of rice, 127,000 MT of rye, and 369,000 MT of peas.

FAS/Moscow estimates Russia’s total imports of grain in MY 2013/14 to fall to a more typical 1.5 MMT, including 0.5 MMT of wheat, mostly from Kazakhstan, 0.5 MMT of barley, mostly malting barley, 0.2 MMT of corn, 0.2 MMT of milled rice, and less than 0.1 MMT of other grains and pulses.

There are no official data on Russia’s imports from Kazakhstan because traders do not provide customs declarations when shipping products within the Customs Union (Russia, Kzakhstan and Belarus). However, according to industry analysts, in July 2012 – through December 2013 Kazakhstan shipped 202,000 MT of wheat to Russian by train, and including shipments by trucks to Siberia, the total imports was estimated at 300,000 MT. In the first week of February, Kazakhstan shipped 34,000 MT to Russia by train. Rye and rye flour imports from Belarus to Russia also is not registered in intra-trade between Russia and Belarus.


FAS/Moscow forecasts Russia’s carry-in stocks in the beginning of the 2013/14 marketing year at slightly over 7 MMT, compared with 12.3 MMT in the beginning of 2012/13. Intervention stocks are estimated to be less than 0.5 MMT.

In MY 2012/13, the Russian Statistical Service (Rosstat) began publishing data on Russia’s grain stocks on a regular basis, and as of March 1, 2013, Russia’s grain stocks were 20.4 MMT, 37 percent less than on the same date last year. Stocks were lower in all federal districts except the North-West of European Russia (Chart 5). By March 1, 2013, Russia’s total grain stocks dropped to levels only reached at the end of the 2010/11 and 2011/12 marketing years, despite another 4 months before the new crop hits the market (Chart 6). Stocks in the South of European Russia (where most exportable stocks are held) - by March 1, 2013 are especially depleted, due to strong early season exports (Chart 7). [For charts, please download the document]

Rosstat does not provide data on farmers’ stocks by types of grain. As of March 1, 2013, assembling and processing enterprises stored 10.13 MMT of grain, including 6.67 MMT of wheat, 1.28 MMT of barley, 1.12 MMT of corn, 0.52 MMT of rye, and 0.54 MMT of other grains and pulses, such as millet, buckwheat, rice, oats, and peas. Stocks of wheat are the lowest in the last 3 years, and were disappearing in MY 2012/13 faster than in the previous years (Chart 8).


The government support of farmers has decreased after Russia’s August 2012 WTO accession, although this decrease is more due to federal budget constraints, rather than WTO commitments, as the total financing of agriculture in 2013 is less than allowed by WTO commitments for its amber box support. Direct producer support has decreased the most dramatically, although government officials have justified this change by stating that with higher grain prices, crop producers should be able to increase their own financing of production without government support.

The Ministry of Agriculture plans to begin procurement interventions in August – September, and at the end of March determined the prices for beginning of procurement interventions. The Government stated its intention to begin buying grain from farmers when/if the market prices of milling wheat Class 3 falls to 6,550 rubles ($212), wheat Class 4 fell to 6,300 rubles ($203), and the market price of feed wheat Class 5 to 5,950 rubles ($192) per MT in the Central, North-Western, Volga Valley, North Caucasus and Southern federal districts. For the Urals, Siberia and the Far East the procurement interventions will begin when market prices fall below 6,250 rubles ($202), 6,050 rubles ($195) and 5,700 rubles ($184) per MT, respectively. The minimum price for food rye is set at 4,950 rubles ($160), for fodder barley – at 5,050 rubles ($163), and for corn, Class 3 – 5,600 rubles (($181) per MT for all federal districts.

Industry analysts note that these announced minimum prices are considerably below recent prices, and may not cover the cost of production for small farmers. As a result these recent price announcements are unlikely to significantly influence farmer planting decisions.

In order to keep domestic grain prices from rising and in order to support domestic flour and feed millers, the government began selling grain from the State Intervention Fund on October 23, 2012, with sales of milling quality wheat from Siberian elevators to local flour and feed millers, but by mid March 2013 the list of grains, location of elevators and list of buyers expanded, and as of now the intervention grain is sold from almost all elevators to millers and even livestock producers. As of March 27th, 2013, the government had sold over 2,546,005 metric tons of grain for over 21,541 million rubles ($695 million). This includes 1,851,260 MT of Class 3 wheat (milling quality), 495,946 MT of Class 4 wheat (milling quality), 64,448 MT of Class 5 wheat (feed quality), 53,543 MT of food quality rye, and 80,808 MT of feed quality barley. Feed quality wheat, rye and barley were allowed for sale only since February 6, 2013.

The decision to begin sales of all types of grain in all parts of the country, along with slowed exports changed the price trends, and both the intervention and the market prices of wheat, and other grains began decreasing (Charts (9, 10 and 11).


After the long period of climbing prices in February 2013, grain prices have begun decreasing. Despite this decrease and the practical discontinuation of exports, sales of grain in the open market were limited. According to Rosstat, sales of grain from agricultural enterprises decreased in January 2013 to 1.2 MMT compared to 5.0 MMT in December, 4.0 MT in November, and 5.3 MMT in October 2012.

Grain prices reached their peak by the end of January. The EX-Warehouse price of milling wheat Class 3 in European Russia increased to 11,480 Rubles ($382.1) per MT, and the price of milling quality wheat Class 4 increased to 11,115 rubles ($369.9) per MT, price of feed quality wheat, Class 5 jumped to 10,890 rubles ($362.9) per MT. By the end of March these prices decreased to 10,590 rubles ($342.4), 10,380 rubles ($335.6), and 10,030 rubles ($324.3) per MT.

Special Section on Rice

Rice is a major grain for use in cereals (“groats”) for food consumption, and comprises 29.1 percent of the Russian groats market, with buckwheat’s share at 28.7 percent. Industry analysts estimate Russia’s rice domestic consumption at 697,300 MT, equivalent of 35.4 billion rubles ($1.16 billion) in CY 2012. The domestic consumption of milled rice has remained at 700,000 MT in the last 15 years, but the supply has changed.

Russian companies started investing in rough rice production and milling in the South of European Russia in 2006. Since then, area sown to rice increased by 23 percent to 201,000 hectares in 2012 and since 2006 rough rice production has increased by 54 percent to 1.052 MMT or an equivalent of 684,000 MT of milled rice. The significant stimulant to such growth were high import duties on milled rice and strengthened SPS requirements, which curbed rice imports by about half in the past 6 years. However, in accordance with WTO commitments, Russia is decreasing rice import duties from 120 Euro per MT to 30 Euro per MT. Industry analysts indicate that price competition in the Russian rice market will intensify, and imports may increase, thereby pushing domestic rice prices down. Import supplies have shifted, with India being the largest supplier in 2012. However, in 2013 imports from India may decrease, since at the end of 2012 Russian phytosanitary authority (Russian Federal Service for Veterinary and Photosanitary Surveillance - VPSS) found the quarantine pest (Tragoderma granarium) in India’s rice and threatened to stop its imports ( On February 19, 2013, temporary restrictions on imports of rice and peanuts from India to Russia came into force. Russia’s rice imports are milled rice, while exports are primarily rough rice.

Russia’s rice exports have been increasing since 2009, and in 2012 Russia became a net exporter, with exports reaching a record 333,000 metric tons, including 171,000 metric tons of rough rice (an equivalent of 111,000 metric tons of milled rice), and 162,000 metric tons of milled rice. These exports went to over 30 countries led by Libya (29.5 percent), Turkey (25 percent), Turkmenistan (12 percent), and Tajikistan (9.5 percent). The total volumes of rice exported to the three Asian, former CIS, countries (Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan) increased from 12,755 MT in 2011 to 83,964 MT in 2012 (6.6 times), in value terms – from $8,207,445 to $49,912,051 (6.1 times). Russia imports primarily milled rice, and imports were decreasing. In CY 2012 Russia exported 79,000 metric tons of rice more than imported (exports and imports is calculated in milled equivalent).

April 2013

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